Thanks for your input Matthew. I actually ended up making a couple test projects to figure out what was going on.
I added four crosshair sprites (no scaling) to a clean background and then added a particle effect at the center point of each one. I used the same coordinates I used for the sprites and added the particles to the base layer, just like the sprites. I also added a couple particle effects to the sprites themselves as children. I set the anchor point of the sprites to
ccp(0.5f, 0.5f) and added the particle emitter to
ccp(0.0f, 0.0f). I noticed some pretty big differences between the center of the crosshair sprites and the center of the particle effects (I used a miniature version of the crosshairs for the particle texture). It definitely wasn’t consistently off on the different devices. I tried it on an iPhone 4S, iPad 2, iPad 3, iPhone 3GS, Galaxy Nexus, Galaxy SII, Nexus S, and a few other HTC and Motorola Android devices that I can’t remember the name of right now.
Exactly the same as project 1 (character for character code-wise), but I used cocos2d-x 2.0.1. Everything lined up perfectly!
So, rather than try to figure out the problem with my project in cocos2d-1.0.1-x-0.13, I just converted my project to use 2.0.1. I am very happy with the results.